The Parthenon is among the most iconic constructions of historic Greek civilization. Situated on the Acropolis in Athens, Greece, it was constructed within the mid-Fifth century BCE and has been a logo of the nation’s cultural and political achievements ever since. The Parthenon was designed as a temple devoted to the goddess Athena, the patron deity of Athens, and it’s extensively thought-about to be a masterpiece of classical Greek structure. On this article, we’ll discover the historical past, structure, and significance of the Parthenon.
Historical past of The Parthenon
The development of the Parthenon started in 447 BCE and was accomplished in 438 BCE. It was constructed to exchange an earlier temple devoted to Athena, which was destroyed by the Persians in 480 BCE throughout their invasion of Greece. The architect answerable for the design of the Parthenon was Ictinus, and the sculptor Phidias was answerable for the unbelievable sculptures that adorned the constructing. The Parthenon was constructed utilizing marble from the close by Mount Pentelicus, and the transportation of the large blocks of stone to the Acropolis was a monumental process.
The Parthenon underwent a number of adjustments over the centuries. Within the sixth century CE, it was transformed right into a Christian church, and in the course of the Ottoman interval, it was used as a mosque. Within the seventeenth century, the constructing was severely broken throughout a siege, and far of the unique construction was destroyed. At this time, the Parthenon stays a significant vacationer attraction and an everlasting image of historic Greek tradition.
Structure of The Parthenon
The Parthenon is a chief instance of classical Greek structure, characterised by its symmetrical design, use of marble, and complex sculptures. The constructing is rectangular in form and measures 69.5 meters lengthy, 30.9 meters vast, and 13.72 meters excessive. The temple is supported by 46 Doric columns, every of which is 10 meters tall and has a diameter of 1.9 meters. The columns are organized in a ratio of 4:9, with 4 columns at the back and front of the temple and 9 columns on either side.
The Parthenon’s frieze is among the most spectacular options of the constructing. It’s a lengthy, steady sculpture that depicts the Panathenaic procession, a grand ceremony held each 4 years in honor of Athena. The frieze is 1.03 meters tall and runs across the outdoors of the constructing, above the columns. The sculptures are extremely detailed and complex, depicting a whole lot of figures in numerous poses and actions.
The Parthenon’s pediments, or triangular gables at both finish of the constructing, are additionally adorned with sculptures. The east pediment depicts the beginning of Athena, whereas the west pediment depicts the competition between Athena and Poseidon for management of Athens. These sculptures are additionally extremely detailed and lifelike, they usually exhibit the talent of the traditional Greek sculptors.
When you’re planning to go to the Parthenon, it’s necessary to buy The Parthenon tickets upfront to keep away from lengthy queues and guarantee you could have entry to this magnificent historic temple. After getting your tickets, you’ll be able to discover the beautiful structure and sculptures of the Parthenon and be taught in regards to the fascinating historical past of this iconic website. Don’t miss the chance to go to one of many world’s most exceptional historic landmarks!
The Temple of Athena Nike
The Temple of Athena Nike is a small however important temple situated on the Acropolis of Athens. It was constructed within the Fifth century BC, in the course of the Classical interval of Greek historical past, and is devoted to the goddess Athena Nike, who was the goddess of victory in historic Greek mythology. The temple is among the most well-known and well-preserved examples of historic Greek structure. On this article, we’ll take a more in-depth have a look at the historical past, structure, and significance of the Temple of Athena Nike.
Historical past of The Temple of Athena Nike
The Temple of Athena Nike was in-built 420 BC, in the course of the time of the Peloponnesian Battle between Athens and Sparta. The temple was constructed to commemorate the Athenian victory over the Persians on the Battle of Marathon in 490 BC. The battle was important as a result of it was the primary time that the Greeks had defeated the Persians, who have been one of the highly effective empires on this planet on the time. The Athenians attributed their victory to the goddess Athena, who was their patron goddess, they usually constructed the Temple of Athena Nike in her honor.
The architect answerable for the design of the temple was Kallikrates, who was additionally answerable for the design of the Temple of Hephaestus in Athens. The temple was constructed on a bastion on the south facet of the Acropolis, overlooking the town of Athens and the port of Piraeus. The temple was constructed of Pentelic marble, which is a kind of white marble that was quarried from Mount Pentelicus in Attica. The development of the temple was accomplished in a comparatively quick time frame, and it was devoted to the goddess Athena Nike in 410 BC.
Structure of the Temple of Athena Nike
The Temple of Athena Nike is a small temple, measuring solely 8.27 meters vast and 5.64 meters deep. It’s constructed within the Ionic model, which was one of many three primary kinds of historic Greek structure. The Ionic model is characterised by slender columns which are adorned with volutes, or spiral scrolls, on the high. The columns of the Temple of Athena Nike are product of Pentelic marble, and they’re slender and swish, with ornate capitals which are adorned with acanthus leaves. The columns are 4.16 meters tall, and they’re spaced shut collectively, which provides the temple a way of intimacy.
The temple has 4 columns at the back and front, and two on either side, for a complete of eight columns. The columns on the entrance of the temple are barely nearer collectively than the columns on the again, which provides the temple a way of depth. The entablature, or the horizontal construction that sits on high of the columns, is adorned with a frieze that depicts the battles between the Athenians and the Persians. The frieze is 1.34 meters tall and runs alongside the highest of the partitions of the cella, or the inside chamber of the temple.
The pediments of the temple, that are the triangular constructions that sit on high of the back and front of the temple, are additionally adorned with sculptures. The east pediment depicts the goddess Athena getting ready to launch her spear, whereas the west pediment depicts the battle between the Athenians and the Persians. The sculptures on the pediments have been destroyed in the course of the Venetian bombardment of Athens in 1687, however they have been later restored.